Next Article in Journal
Multi-Attribute Technological Modeling of Coal Deposits Based on the Fuzzy TOPSIS and C-Mean Clustering Algorithms
Next Article in Special Issue
Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters
Previous Article in Journal
Adaptive Droop Control for Microgrids Based on the Synergetic Control of Multi-Agent Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Detailed Assessment of the Wave Energy Resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1056; doi:10.3390/en9121056

Energy Conversion: A Comparison of Fix- and Self-Referenced Wave Energy Converters

Marine and Renewable Energy Ireland, Environment Research Institute, University College Cork, P43 C573 Cork, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jens Peter Kofoed
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling of Wave and Tidal Energy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4625 KB, uploaded 15 December 2016]   |  


The paper presents an investigation of fix-referenced and self-referenced wave energy converters and a comparison of their corresponding wave energy conversion capacities from real seas. For conducting the comparisons, two popular wave energy converters, point absorber and oscillating water column, and their power conversion capacities in the fixed-referenced and self-referenced forms have been numerically studied and compared. In the numerical models, the device’s power extractions from seas are maximized using the correspondingly optimized power take-offs in different sea states, thus their power conversion capacities can be calculated and compared. From the comparisons and analyses, it is shown that the energy conversion capacities of the self-referenced devices can be significantly increased if the motions of the device itself can be utilized for wave energy conversion; and the self-referenced devices can be possibly designed to be compliant in long waves, which could be a very beneficial factor for device survivability in the extreme wave conditions (normally long waves). In this regards, the self-referenced WECs (wave energy converters) may be better options in terms of wave energy conversion from the targeted waves in seas (frequently the most occurred), and in terms of the device survivability, especially in the extreme waves when compared to the fix-referenced counterparts. View Full-Text
Keywords: wave energy converter; power take-off optimization; WEC deployment; point absorber; oscillating water column wave energy converter; power take-off optimization; WEC deployment; point absorber; oscillating water column

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sheng, W.; Lewis, T. Energy Conversion: A Comparison of Fix- and Self-Referenced Wave Energy Converters. Energies 2016, 9, 1056.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top