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Energies 2015, 8(9), 9064-9086; doi:10.3390/en8099064

Incorporating Cyber Layer Failures in Composite Power System Reliability Evaluations

1
College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
2
State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing 102209, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefan Gößling-Reisemann
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Energy Systems)
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Abstract

This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze the impacts of cyber layer failures (i.e., protection failures and monitoring failures) on the reliability evaluation of composite power systems. The reliability and availability of the cyber layer and its protection and monitoring functions with various topologies are derived based on a reliability block diagram method. The availability of the physical layer components are modified via a multi-state Markov chain model, in which the component protection and monitoring strategies, as well as the cyber layer topology, are simultaneously considered. Reliability indices of composite power systems are calculated through non-sequential Monte-Carlo simulation. Case studies demonstrate that operational reliability downgrades in cyber layer function failure situations. Moreover, protection function failures have more significant impact on the downgraded reliability than monitoring function failures do, and the reliability indices are especially sensitive to the change of the cyber layer function availability in the range from 0.95 to 1. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyber-physical energy system; multi-state Markov chain; cyber layer topology; cyber layer function failures; composite power system reliability cyber-physical energy system; multi-state Markov chain; cyber layer topology; cyber layer function failures; composite power system reliability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, Y.; Wen, Y.; Guo, C.; Huang, H. Incorporating Cyber Layer Failures in Composite Power System Reliability Evaluations. Energies 2015, 8, 9064-9086.

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