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Energies 2015, 8(7), 6765-6794; doi:10.3390/en8076765

A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels

1
School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
2
Biofuel Engine Research Facility, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kent Hoekman
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 1 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [861 KB, uploaded 1 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) presents a viable route for converting a vast range of materials into liquid fuel, without the need for pre-drying. Currently, HTL studies produce bio-crude with properties that fall short of diesel or biodiesel standards. Upgrading bio-crude improves the physical and chemical properties to produce a fuel corresponding to diesel or biodiesel. Properties such as viscosity, density, heating value, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content, and chemical composition can be modified towards meeting fuel standards using strategies such as solvent extraction, distillation, hydrodeoxygenation and catalytic cracking. This article presents a review of the upgrading technologies available, and how they might be used to make HTL bio-crude into a transportation fuel that meets current fuel property standards. View Full-Text
Keywords: upgrading; liquefaction; biofuels;      hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) upgrading; liquefaction; biofuels;      hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramirez, J.A.; Brown, R.J.; Rainey, T.J. A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels. Energies 2015, 8, 6765-6794.

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