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Energies 2015, 8(6), 5937-5951; doi:10.3390/en8065937

An Environmental Analysis of the Effect of Energy Saving, Production and Recovery Measures on Water Supply Systems under Scarcity Conditions

1
Department of Civil, Environmental, Aeronautic and Chemical Engineering University of Palermo, viale delle Scienze, Ed. 8, 90100 Palermo, Italy
2
Sering Engineering, Via E. Amari, 90132 Palermo, Italy
3
School of Engineering and Architecture, University of Enna "Kore", Cittadella Universitaria, 94100 Enna, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian Agnew
Received: 3 April 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tri-Generation Cycles, Combined Heat, Power and Cooling (CHPC))
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Abstract

Water is one of the primary resources provided for maintaining quality of life and social status in urban areas. As potable water is considered to be a primary need, water service has usually been managed without examining the economic and environmental sustainability of supply processes. Currently, due to increases in energy costs and the growth of environment preservation policies, reducing water leakage, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) production have become primary objectives in reducing the environmental footprint of water service. The present paper suggests the implementation of some performance indicators that show the interdependence of water loss, energy consumption and GHG emission. These indicators are used to compare a few possible mitigation scenarios involving water loss reduction and increasing the system’s energy efficiency. The proposed indicators were applied to a complex urban water supply system serving the city of Palermo (Italy). View Full-Text
Keywords: water supply; energy; leakage; GHG; performance indicators water supply; energy; leakage; GHG; performance indicators
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Puleo, V.; Sambito, M.; Freni, G. An Environmental Analysis of the Effect of Energy Saving, Production and Recovery Measures on Water Supply Systems under Scarcity Conditions. Energies 2015, 8, 5937-5951.

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