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Energies 2014, 7(9), 5847-5862; doi:10.3390/en7095847

Improving Wind Farm Dispatchability Using Model Predictive Control for Optimal Operation of Grid-Scale Energy Storage

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Abstract

This paper demonstrates the use of model-based predictive control for energy storage systems to improve the dispatchability of wind power plants. Large-scale wind penetration increases the variability of power flow on the grid, thus increasing reserve requirements. Large energy storage systems collocated with wind farms can improve dispatchability of the wind plant by storing energy during generation over-the-schedule and sourcing energy during generation under-the-schedule, essentially providing on-site reserves. Model predictive control (MPC) provides a natural framework for this application. By utilizing an accurate energy storage system model, control actions can be planned in the context of system power and state-of-charge limitations. MPC also enables the inclusion of predicted wind farm performance over a near-term horizon that allows control actions to be planned in anticipation of fast changes, such as wind ramps. This paper demonstrates that model-based predictive control can improve system performance compared with a standard non-predictive, non-model-based control approach. It is also demonstrated that secondary objectives, such as reducing the rate of change of the wind plant output (i.e., ramps), can be considered and successfully implemented within the MPC framework. Specifically, it is shown that scheduling error can be reduced by 81%, reserve requirements can be improved by up to 37%, and the number of ramp events can be reduced by 74%. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy storage; model predictive control (MPC); reserve generation; wind generation; wind ramps energy storage; model predictive control (MPC); reserve generation; wind generation; wind ramps
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Halamay, D.; Antonishen, M.; Lajoie, K.; Bostrom, A.; Brekken, T.K.A. Improving Wind Farm Dispatchability Using Model Predictive Control for Optimal Operation of Grid-Scale Energy Storage. Energies 2014, 7, 5847-5862.

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