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Energies 2014, 7(11), 7194-7222; doi:10.3390/en7117194

Macroalgae-Derived Biofuel: A Review of Methods of Energy Extraction from Seaweed Biomass

1
Algae Biotechnology Research Group, Faculty of Engineering & Science, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
2
Centre for Sustainable Chemical Processes, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Based Technologies)
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Abstract

The potential of algal biomass as a source of liquid and gaseous biofuels is a highly topical theme, but as yet there is no successful economically viable commercial system producing biofuel. However, the majority of the research has focused on producing fuels from microalgae rather than from macroalgae. This article briefly reviews the methods by which useful energy may be extracted from macroalgae biomass including: direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, trans-esterification to biodiesel, hydrothermal liquefaction, fermentation to bioethanol, fermentation to biobutanol and anaerobic digestion, and explores technical and engineering difficulties that remain to be resolved. View Full-Text
Keywords: seaweed; macroalgae; algae; bioenergy; pyrolysis; gasification; liquefaction; fermentation; anaerobic digestion seaweed; macroalgae; algae; bioenergy; pyrolysis; gasification; liquefaction; fermentation; anaerobic digestion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Milledge, J.J.; Smith, B.; Dyer, P.W.; Harvey, P. Macroalgae-Derived Biofuel: A Review of Methods of Energy Extraction from Seaweed Biomass. Energies 2014, 7, 7194-7222.

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