Energies 2012, 5(10), 4076-4090; doi:10.3390/en5104076
Article

Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications

1 Electrical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA 2 Consulting and analysis, Itron Inc., Davis, CA 95616, USA 3 Electrical Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2012; in revised form: 2 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle to Grid)
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Abstract: Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. On the other hand, EVs have the potential to support the grid under various conditions. This paper studies possible potential and applications of Vehicle to Grid (V2G) services, including active power services, which discharge the EV batteries, and power quality services, which do not engage the battery or require only small amounts of battery charge. The advantages and disadvantages of each service and the likelihood that a given service will be effective and beneficial for the grid in the future are discussed. Further, the infrastructure cost, duration, and value of V2G services are compared qualitatively.
Keywords: electric vehicle; plug-in hybrid vehicle; power quality; reactive power

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ehsani, M.; Falahi, M.; Lotfifard, S. Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications. Energies 2012, 5, 4076-4090.

AMA Style

Ehsani M, Falahi M, Lotfifard S. Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications. Energies. 2012; 5(10):4076-4090.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ehsani, Mehrdad; Falahi, Milad; Lotfifard, Saeed. 2012. "Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications." Energies 5, no. 10: 4076-4090.

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