Next Article in Journal
Intrusion Detection of NSM Based DoS Attacks Using Data Mining in Smart Grid
Next Article in Special Issue
Novel Speed Bumps Design and Optimization for Vehicles' Energy Recovery in Smart Cities
Previous Article in Journal
A Nonlinear Elastic Model for Triaxial Compressive Properties of Artificial Methane-Hydrate-Bearing Sediment Samples
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Energies 2012, 5(10), 4076-4090; doi:10.3390/en5104076

Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications

1,* , 2
1 Electrical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA 2 Consulting and analysis, Itron Inc., Davis, CA 95616, USA 3 Electrical Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2012 / Revised: 2 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle to Grid)
Download PDF [230 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]


Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. On the other hand, EVs have the potential to support the grid under various conditions. This paper studies possible potential and applications of Vehicle to Grid (V2G) services, including active power services, which discharge the EV batteries, and power quality services, which do not engage the battery or require only small amounts of battery charge. The advantages and disadvantages of each service and the likelihood that a given service will be effective and beneficial for the grid in the future are discussed. Further, the infrastructure cost, duration, and value of V2G services are compared qualitatively.
Keywords: electric vehicle; plug-in hybrid vehicle; power quality; reactive power electric vehicle; plug-in hybrid vehicle; power quality; reactive power
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Ehsani, M.; Falahi, M.; Lotfifard, S. Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications. Energies 2012, 5, 4076-4090.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert