Energies 2011, 4(11), 1840-1857; doi:10.3390/en4111840
Review

Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Received: 31 August 2011; in revised form: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 25 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.
Keywords: battery management system; lithium-ion battery; state of charge; state of health; state of life
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [314 KB, uploaded 31 October 2011 11:01 CET]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Xing, Y.; Ma, E.W.M.; Tsui, K.L.; Pecht, M. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Energies 2011, 4, 1840-1857.

AMA Style

Xing Y, Ma EWM, Tsui KL, Pecht M. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Energies. 2011; 4(11):1840-1857.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xing, Yinjiao; Ma, Eden W. M.; Tsui, Kwok L.; Pecht, Michael. 2011. "Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles." Energies 4, no. 11: 1840-1857.

Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert