Energies 2010, 3(7), 1383-1422; doi:10.3390/en3071383
Review

Coastal and Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign?

1 Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK 2 Amec, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford, Cheshire, WA16 8QZ, UK 3 Projecto Delfim, Centro Português de Estudo dos Mamíferos Marinhos, Rua Alto do Duque, 45, 1400-009 Lisboa, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2010; Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 20 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
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Abstract: Offshore and coastal wind power is one of the fastest growing industries in many areas, especially those with shallow coastal regions due to the preferable generation conditions available in the regions. As with any expanding industry, there are concerns regarding the potential environmental effects which may be caused by the installation of the offshore wind turbines and their associated infrastructure, including substations and subsea cables. These include the potential impacts on the biological, physical and human environments. This review discusses in detail the potential impacts arising from offshore wind farm construction, and how these may be quantified and addressed through the use of conceptual models. It concludes that while not environmentally benign, the environmental impacts are minor and can be mitigated through good siting practices. In addition, it suggests that there are opportunities for environmental benefits through habitat creation and conservation protection areas.
Keywords: offshore wind energy; environmental impact assessment; renewable energy

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilson, J.C.; Elliott, M.; Cutts, N.D.; Mander, L.; Mendão, V.; Perez-Dominguez, R.; Phelps, A. Coastal and Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Energies 2010, 3, 1383-1422.

AMA Style

Wilson JC, Elliott M, Cutts ND, Mander L, Mendão V, Perez-Dominguez R, Phelps A. Coastal and Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Energies. 2010; 3(7):1383-1422.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wilson, Jennifer C.; Elliott, Mike; Cutts, Nick D.; Mander, Lucas; Mendão, Vera; Perez-Dominguez, Rafael; Phelps, Anna. 2010. "Coastal and Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign?" Energies 3, no. 7: 1383-1422.

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