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Energies 2017, 10(8), 1131; doi:10.3390/en10081131

Demand Side Management in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings Using Heuristic Optimizations

1
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Bannu 28100, Pakistan
3
Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
4
Research Chair of Pervasive and Mobile Computing, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hongyu Wu
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Energy Storage Applications in Smart Grid)

Abstract

Today’s buildings are responsible for about 40% of total energy consumption and 30–40% of carbon emissions, which are key concerns for the sustainable development of any society. The excessive usage of grid energy raises sustainability issues in the face of global changes, such as climate change, population, economic growths, etc. Traditionally, the power systems that deliver this commodity are fuel operated and lead towards high carbon emissions and global warming. To overcome these issues, the recent concept of the nearly zero energy building (nZEB) has attracted numerous researchers and industry for the construction and management of the new generation buildings. In this regard, this paper proposes various demand side management (DSM) programs using the genetic algorithm (GA), teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO), the enhanced differential evolution (EDE) algorithm and the proposed enhanced differential teaching learning algorithm (EDTLA) to manage energy and comfort, while taking the human preferences into consideration. Power consumption patterns of shiftable home appliances are modified in response to the real-time price signal in order to get monetary benefits. To further improve the cost and user discomfort objectives along with reduced carbon emission, renewable energy sources (RESs) are also integrated into the microgrid (MG). The proposed model is implemented in a smart residential complex of multiple homes under a real-time pricing environment. We figure out two feasible regions: one for electricity cost and the other for user discomfort. The proposed model aims to deal with the stochastic nature of RESs while introducing the battery storage system (BSS). The main objectives of this paper include: (1) integration of RESs; (2) minimization of the electricity bill (cost) and discomfort; and (3) minimizing the peak to average ratio (PAR) and carbon emission. Additionally, we also analyze the tradeoff between two conflicting objectives, like electricity cost and user discomfort. Simulation results validate both the implemented and proposed techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgrid (MG); renewable energy sources (RESs); demand side management (DSM); heuristic techniques; planning and scheduling; storage system; zero energy buildings microgrid (MG); renewable energy sources (RESs); demand side management (DSM); heuristic techniques; planning and scheduling; storage system; zero energy buildings
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Javaid, N.; Hussain, S.M.; Ullah, I.; Noor, M.A.; Abdul, W.; Almogren, A.; Alamri, A. Demand Side Management in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings Using Heuristic Optimizations. Energies 2017, 10, 1131.

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