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Energies 2017, 10(5), 583; doi:10.3390/en10050583

A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim

School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta, Finland
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Academic Editor: Lieven Vandevelde
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Technologies)
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Abstract

In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63.5 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An integrated scenario was simulated to show the benefit of integrating additional demand of industrial gas and desalinated water which provided the system the required flexibility and increased the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. This was reflected in the decrease of system cost by 9.5% and the total electricity generation by 5.1%. According to the results, grid integration on a larger scale decreases the total system cost and levelized cost of electricity by reducing the need for storage technologies due to seasonal variations in weather and demand profiles. The intermittency of renewable technologies can be effectively stabilized to satisfy hourly demand at a low cost level. A 100% renewable energy based system could be a reality economically and technically in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than the nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: 100% renewable energy; Southeast Asia; Australia; energy system optimization; storage; grid integration; economics 100% renewable energy; Southeast Asia; Australia; energy system optimization; storage; grid integration; economics
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Gulagi, A.; Bogdanov, D.; Breyer, C. A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim. Energies 2017, 10, 583.

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