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Energies 2017, 10(2), 200; doi:10.3390/en10020200

Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center (GECAD), Institute of Engineering—Polytechnic of Porto (ISEP/IPP), 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
3
Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO), Boerentang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract

The growing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) represents an operational challenge to system operators, mainly at the distribution level by introducing congestion and voltage drop problems. To solve these potential problems, a two-level coordination approach is proposed in this study. An aggregation entity, i.e., an EV virtual power plant (EV-VPP), is used to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO) and EV owners considering the decentralized electricity market structure. In level I, to prevent the line congestion and voltage drop problems, the EV-VPP internally respects the line and voltage constraints when making optimal charging schedules. In level II, to avoid power transformer congestion problems, this paper investigates three different coordination mechanisms, or power transformer capacity allocation mechanisms, between the DSO and the EV-VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1) a market-based approach; (2) a pro-rata approach; and (3) a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed coordination mechanism, comparing with the existing ones. View Full-Text
Keywords: coordination mechanisms; electric vehicles; network-constrained operation; virtual power plants coordination mechanisms; electric vehicles; network-constrained operation; virtual power plants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, J.; Morais, H.; Sousa, T.; You, S.; D’hulst, R. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism. Energies 2017, 10, 200.

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