Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2894-2909; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082894
Article

Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina

Received: 18 June 2012; in revised form: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparedness and Emergency Response)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.
Keywords: environmental health; epidemiology; accidents and injuries; chemical safety; occupational health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Svendsen, E.R.; Runkle, J.R.; Dhara, V.R.; Lin, S.; Naboka, M.; Mousseau, T.A.; Bennett, C.L. Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2894-2909.

AMA Style

Svendsen ER, Runkle JR, Dhara VR, Lin S, Naboka M, Mousseau TA, Bennett CL. Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(8):2894-2909.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Svendsen, Erik R.; Runkle, Jennifer R.; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Bennett, Charles L. 2012. "Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 8: 2894-2909.

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