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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(8), 2772-2787; doi:10.3390/ijerph9082772
Review

Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes

1
, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 4 May 2012; in revised form: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
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Abstract: A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children’s health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements.
Keywords: water; school; menstruation; drinking; sanitation; handwashing water; school; menstruation; drinking; sanitation; handwashing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jasper, C.; Le, T.-T.; Bartram, J. Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2772-2787.

AMA Style

Jasper C, Le T-T, Bartram J. Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(8):2772-2787.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jasper, Christian; Le, Thanh-Tam; Bartram, Jamie. 2012. "Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 8: 2772-2787.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert