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Non-Genomic Effects of Xenoestrogen Mixtures
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2012; in revised form: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Abstract: Xenoestrogens (XEs) are chemicals derived from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources that can interfere with endogenous estrogens by either mimicking or blocking their responses via non-genomic and/or genomic signaling mechanisms. Disruption of estrogens’ actions through the less-studied non-genomic pathway can alter such functional end points as cell proliferation, peptide hormone release, catecholamine transport, and apoptosis, among others. Studies of potentially adverse effects due to mixtures and to low doses of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have recently become more feasible, though few so far have included actions via the non-genomic pathway. Physiologic estrogens and XEs evoke non-monotonic dose responses, with different compounds having different patterns of actions dependent on concentration and time, making mixture assessments all the more challenging. In order to understand the spectrum of toxicities and their mechanisms, future work should focus on carefully studying individual and mixture components across a range of concentrations and cellular pathways in a variety of tissue types.
Keywords: non-genomic; estrogenic mixtures; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; xenoestrogens; non-monotonic dose-response curves; kinases; hormesis
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Viñas, R.; Jeng, Y.-J.; Watson, C.S. Non-Genomic Effects of Xenoestrogen Mixtures. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2694-2714.
Viñas R, Jeng Y-J, Watson CS. Non-Genomic Effects of Xenoestrogen Mixtures. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(8):2694-2714.
Viñas, René; Jeng, Yow-Jiun; Watson, Cheryl S. 2012. "Non-Genomic Effects of Xenoestrogen Mixtures." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 8: 2694-2714.