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Occurrence and Spatial and Temporal Variations of Disinfection By-Products in the Water and Air of Two Indoor Swimming Pools
Département de santé environnementale et santé au travail, École de santé publique de l’Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
Chaire de recherche en eau potable, Département d’aménagement du territoire, Université Laval, 1624 Pavillon F.A. Savard, Ste-Foy, QC G1K 7P4, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2012; in revised form: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Abstract: In order to improve disinfection by-product (DBP) exposure assessment, this study was designed to document both water and air levels of these chemical contaminants in two indoor swimming pools and to analyze their within-day and day-to-day variations in both of them. Intensive sampling was carried out during two one-week campaigns to measure trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines (CAMs) in water and air, and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water several times daily. Water samples were systematically collected at three locations in each pool and air samples were collected at various heights around the pool and in other rooms (e.g., changing room) in the buildings. In addition, the ability of various models to predict air concentrations from water was tested using this database. No clear trends, but actual variations of contamination levels, appeared for both water and air according to the sampling locations and times. Likewise, the available models resulted in realistic but imprecise estimates of air contamination levels from water. This study supports the recommendation that suitable minimal air and water sampling should be carried out in swimming pools to assess exposure to DBPs.
Keywords: disinfection by-products; swimming pool; exposure assessment; water and air monitoring; spatial and temporal variations; volatilization model
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MDPI and ACS Style
Catto, C.; Sabrina, S.; Ginette, C.-T.; Manuel, R.; Robert, T. Occurrence and Spatial and Temporal Variations of Disinfection By-Products in the Water and Air of Two Indoor Swimming Pools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2562-2586.
Catto C, Sabrina S, Ginette C-T, Manuel R, Robert T. Occurrence and Spatial and Temporal Variations of Disinfection By-Products in the Water and Air of Two Indoor Swimming Pools. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(8):2562-2586.
Catto, Cyril; Sabrina, Simard; Ginette, Charest-Tardif; Manuel, Rodriguez; Robert, Tardif. 2012. "Occurrence and Spatial and Temporal Variations of Disinfection By-Products in the Water and Air of Two Indoor Swimming Pools." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 8: 2562-2586.