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Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years
School of Public Health, Drexel University, 1505 Race Street, MS 1034, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
College of Medicine, Family, Community, and Preventive Medicine, Drexel University, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
School of Medicine, University of California Davis, 4610 X Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
National Nursing Centers Consortium, 260 South Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children, East Erie Avenue and North Front Street, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA
College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA
Philadelphia Department of Public Health, Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program, 2100 West Girard Avenue, Building #3, Philadelphia, PA 19130, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2012; in revised form: 30 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 April 2012 / Published: 11 April 2012
Abstract: Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH) Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6%) of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7%) of the 628 control children (p = 0.1). Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4) months versus 23.6 (3.1) months (P = 0.6). Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4). The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes.
Keywords: childhood lead poisoning; primary prevention of lead exposure; blood lead levels; children’s environmental health
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Campbell, C.; Gracely, E.; Tran, M.; Starkey, N.; Kersten, H.; Palermo, P.; Rothman, N.; Line, L.; Hansen-Turton, T. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1216-1226.
Campbell C, Gracely E, Tran M, Starkey N, Kersten H, Palermo P, Rothman N, Line L, Hansen-Turton T. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(4):1216-1226.
Campbell, Carla; Gracely, Edward; Tran, Mary; Starkey, Naomi; Kersten, Hans; Palermo, Peter; Rothman, Nancy; Line, Laura; Hansen-Turton, Tine. 2012. "Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 4: 1216-1226.