Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 855-867; doi:10.3390/ijerph9030855
Article

Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

1 Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia 2 Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia 3 School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia 4 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2012; in revised form: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 9 March 2012
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Abstract: A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.
Keywords: autoclave; clinical solid waste; clinical solid waste management; inactivation of bacteria; treatment technology

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hossain, M.S.; Balakrishnan, V.; Rahman, N.N.N.A.; Sarker, M.Z.I.; Kadir, M.O.A. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 855-867.

AMA Style

Hossain MS, Balakrishnan V, Rahman NNNA, Sarker MZI, Kadir MOA. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(3):855-867.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab. 2012. "Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 3: 855-867.

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