Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 685-697; doi:10.3390/ijerph9030685
Article

Short and Long Term Variation in Ultraviolet Radiation and Multiple Sclerosis

1,†,* , 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 5
, 1,6
, 3,7,8
, Jr. 2
 and 1
Received: 10 January 2012; in revised form: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [213 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: We examined the role of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in persons diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) in four different populations, Italians, Danish, White and African Americans. We tested whether variation in UVR as determined by seasons (short term variation) and solar cycles (long term variation) is related to MS birth month and to survival as measured by lifespan. Cases were selected from three Italian MS Case Registries (2,737); from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (56,020); and from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis registry (15,900). Chi-square tests were used to study the pattern of month of birth distribution in patients with MS comparing with general population data. T-tests were employed to study solar cycles association with lifespan. A surplus of births was observed in June for White Americans. A decrease of births in October and November, though not significant after multiple testing correction, was observed in the three populations. In White American with MS overall, males and females, we found that solar cycle is associated with lifespan. We found that season and solar cycles have some role in MS susceptibility and life duration. However, this is an exploratory analysis and further work is needed to discern the association.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; seasonality; solar cycles; variation in ultraviolet radiation multiple sclerosis; seasonality; solar cycles; variation in ultraviolet radiation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Menni, C.; Lowell, W.E.; Bentzen, J.; Bergamaschi, R.; Martinelli Boneschi, F.; Martinelli, V.; Bernardinelli, L.; Stenager, E.; Davis, G.E., Jr.; Foco, L. Short and Long Term Variation in Ultraviolet Radiation and Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 685-697.

AMA Style

Menni C, Lowell WE, Bentzen J, Bergamaschi R, Martinelli Boneschi F, Martinelli V, Bernardinelli L, Stenager E, Davis GE, Jr, Foco L. Short and Long Term Variation in Ultraviolet Radiation and Multiple Sclerosis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(3):685-697.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Menni, Cristina; Lowell, Walter E.; Bentzen, Joan; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Martinelli, Vittorio; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Stenager, Egon; Davis, George E., Jr.; Foco, Luisa. 2012. "Short and Long Term Variation in Ultraviolet Radiation and Multiple Sclerosis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 3: 685-697.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert