Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 660-673; doi:10.3390/ijerph9030660
Article

Concurrent and Predictive Relationships Between Compulsive Internet Use and Substance Use: Findings from Vocational High School Students in China and the USA

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Received: 29 December 2011; in revised form: 25 January 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 23 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Behavioral Addictions: Co-Occurrence and Specificity)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Purpose: Compulsive Internet Use (CIU) has increasingly become an area of research among process addictions. Largely based on data from cross-sectional studies, a positive association between CIU and substance use has previously been reported. This study presents gender and country-specific longitudinal findings on the relationships between CIU and substance use. Methods: Data were drawn from youth attending non-conventional high schools, recruited into two similarly implemented trials conducted in China and the USA. The Chinese sample included 1,761 students (49% male); the US sample included 1,182 students (57% male) with over half (65%) of the US youth being of Hispanic ethnicity. Path analyses were applied to detect the concurrent and predictive relationships between baseline and one-year follow-up measures of CIU level, 30-day cigarette smoking, and 30-day binge drinking. Results: (1) CIU was not positively related with substance use at baseline. (2) There was a positive predictive relationship between baseline CIU and change in substance use among female, but not male students. (3) Relationships between concurrent changes in CIU and substance use were also found among female, but not male students. (4) Baseline substance use did not predict an increase in CIU from baseline to 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: While CIU was found to be related to substance use, the relationship was not consistently positive. More longitudinal studies with better measures for Internet Addiction are needed to ascertain the detailed relationship between Internet addiction and substance use.
Keywords: compulsive internet use; internet addiction; youth; cigarette smoking; binge drinking; addiction syndrome; addiction specificity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, P.; Johnson, C.A.; Palmer, P.; Arpawong, T.E.; Unger, J.B.; Xie, B.; Rohrbach, L.A.; Spruijt-Metz, D.; Sussman, S. Concurrent and Predictive Relationships Between Compulsive Internet Use and Substance Use: Findings from Vocational High School Students in China and the USA. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 660-673.

AMA Style

Sun P, Johnson CA, Palmer P, Arpawong TE, Unger JB, Xie B, Rohrbach LA, Spruijt-Metz D, Sussman S. Concurrent and Predictive Relationships Between Compulsive Internet Use and Substance Use: Findings from Vocational High School Students in China and the USA. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(3):660-673.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Ping; Johnson, Carl Anderson; Palmer, Paula; Arpawong, Thalida E.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Xie, Bin; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve. 2012. "Concurrent and Predictive Relationships Between Compulsive Internet Use and Substance Use: Findings from Vocational High School Students in China and the USA." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 3: 660-673.

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