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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(2), 531-547; doi:10.3390/ijerph9020531

Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

1 Department of Psychiatry, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, Mareunnae-ro 9, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100032, Korea 2 Stress Research Institute, Inje University, 607 Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyungnam, 621749, Korea 3 Psychiatry Residency Training Program, St. Elizabeth’s Hospital, 1100 Alabama Avenue, Washington, DC 20032, USA 4 Mood and Anxiety Program (MAP), Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 26 January 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention and Public Health)
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A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general.
Keywords: seasonality; suicide; prevention seasonality; suicide; prevention
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Woo, J.-M.; Okusaga, O.; Postolache, T.T. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 531-547.

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