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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(11), 4033-4055; doi:10.3390/ijerph9114033
Article

Use of a Deuterated Internal Standard with Pyrolysis-GC/MS Dimeric Marker Analysis to Quantify Tire Tread Particles in the Environment

* ,
 and
ChemRisk LLC, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2012 / Revised: 22 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry and Environmental Analysis)
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Abstract

Pyrolysis(pyr)-GC/MS analysis of characteristic thermal decomposition fragments has been previously used for qualitative fingerprinting of organic sources in environmental samples. A quantitative pyr-GC/MS method based on characteristic tire polymer pyrolysis products was developed for tread particle quantification in environmental matrices including soil, sediment, and air. The feasibility of quantitative pyr-GC/MS analysis of tread was confirmed in a method evaluation study using artificial soil spiked with known amounts of cryogenically generated tread. Tread concentration determined by blinded analyses was highly correlated (r2 ³ 0.88) with the known tread spike concentration. Two critical refinements to the initial pyrolysis protocol were identified including use of an internal standard and quantification by the dimeric markers vinylcyclohexene and dipentene, which have good specificity for rubber polymer with no other appreciable environmental sources. A novel use of deuterated internal standards of similar polymeric structure was developed to correct the variable analyte recovery caused by sample size, matrix effects, and ion source variability. The resultant quantitative pyr-GC/MS protocol is reliable and transferable between laboratories.
Keywords: pyrolysis-GC/MS; internal standard; tire wear; environmental; rubber pyrolysis-GC/MS; internal standard; tire wear; environmental; rubber
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Unice, K.M.; Kreider, M.L.; Panko, J.M. Use of a Deuterated Internal Standard with Pyrolysis-GC/MS Dimeric Marker Analysis to Quantify Tire Tread Particles in the Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4033-4055.

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