Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(10), 3484-3505; doi:10.3390/ijerph9103484
Article

Quantitative Variations of Intracellular Microcystin-LR, -RR and -YR in Samples Collected from Four Locations in Hartbeespoort Dam in North West Province (South Africa) During the 2010/2011 Summer Season

Received: 16 May 2012; in revised form: 7 September 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 2 October 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The Hartbeespoort (HBP) Dam is a reservoir used for agricultural, domestic supply of raw potable water and recreational activities in South Africa’s North-West Province. Eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms have long been a cause of water-quality problems in this reservoir. The most prevalent bloom-forming species is Microcystis aeruginosa, often producing the toxin microcystin, a hepatotoxin which can negatively impact aquatic animal and human health, and poses a problem for potable water supply. Algal samples were collected monthly from four pre-determined sites in the dam during the summer months (December 2010–March 2011). Intracellular microcystins (MCs) were extracted using SPE C18 cartridges, followed by separation, identification and quantification using LC-ESI-MS techniques. Quantitative variation studies of MCs were conducted with respect to MC congener isolated, sampling site and month. Three main MC congeners (MC-RR, -LR and-YR) were isolated, identified and quantified. In addition, three minor MCs (MC-WR, MC-(H4)YR and (D-Asp3, Dha7)MC-RR were also identified, but were not quantified. The MC dominance followed the order MC-RR>MC-LR>MC-YR across all sites and time. The maximum and minimum concentrations were 268 µg/g and 0.14 µg/g DW for MC-RR and MC-YR, respectively, of the total MCs quantified from this study. One-way ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences between average MC concentrations recorded across months (P = 0.62), there was, however, a marginally-significant difference in concentrations among MC congeners (P = 0.06). ANCOVA revealed a highly significant interaction between sites and MC congeners on MC concentration (P < 0.001).
Keywords: summer; Hartbeespoort Dam; dry weight (DW); quantitative LC-ESI-MS; intracellular variations; microcystin-RR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mbukwa, E.A.; Msagati, T.A.; Mamba, B.B. Quantitative Variations of Intracellular Microcystin-LR, -RR and -YR in Samples Collected from Four Locations in Hartbeespoort Dam in North West Province (South Africa) During the 2010/2011 Summer Season. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3484-3505.

AMA Style

Mbukwa EA, Msagati TA, Mamba BB. Quantitative Variations of Intracellular Microcystin-LR, -RR and -YR in Samples Collected from Four Locations in Hartbeespoort Dam in North West Province (South Africa) During the 2010/2011 Summer Season. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(10):3484-3505.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mbukwa, Elbert A.; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B. 2012. "Quantitative Variations of Intracellular Microcystin-LR, -RR and -YR in Samples Collected from Four Locations in Hartbeespoort Dam in North West Province (South Africa) During the 2010/2011 Summer Season." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 10: 3484-3505.

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