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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(1), 97-99; doi:10.3390/ijerph9010097

Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders

Received: 20 December 2011 / Accepted: 22 December 2011 / Published: 3 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trauma, Addiction and Criminality)
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Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is an excerpt from the first page.

Excerpt: Criminal behaviour is believed to arise from a multiplicity of factors, including unemployment and poverty [1,2], low self-control [3], psychological issues [4,5], early conduct problems [6], childhood physical and sexual abuse disorder [5], and social bonding in child- and adulthood [7]. Social-structural influences like family conflict/disruption, financial resources, child-parent and school/peer attachment and abuse and neglect in childhood have lasting impressions, leading to multiple problems including delinquency and later criminal activity, substance use/abuse, mental illness and poor self-rated health [8-12]. The consequences of such behaviour include financial losses, injury, and death that together have significant personal and societal costs. Society also bears the burden of incarcerating and rehabilitating offenders; a burden that is not trivial. Direct costs of imprisonment in Canada approach $3.5 billion annually; in the US the cost is substantially higher, approaching $74 billion [13]. [...]
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Matheson, F.I. Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 97-99.

AMA Style

Matheson FI. Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(1):97-99.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Matheson, Flora I. 2012. "Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 1: 97-99.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert