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Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders
Centre for Research on Inner City Health, The Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W8, Canada
Received: 20 December 2011; in revised form: / Accepted: 22 December 2011 / Published: 3 January 2012
Abstract: Criminal behaviour is believed to arise from a multiplicity of factors, including unemployment and poverty [1,2], low self-control , psychological issues [4,5], early conduct problems , childhood physical and sexual abuse disorder , and social bonding in child- and adulthood . Social-structural influences like family conflict/disruption, financial resources, child-parent and school/peer attachment and abuse and neglect in childhood have lasting impressions, leading to multiple problems including delinquency and later criminal activity, substance use/abuse, mental illness and poor self-rated health [8-12]. The consequences of such behaviour include financial losses, injury, and death that together have significant personal and societal costs. Society also bears the burden of incarcerating and rehabilitating offenders; a burden that is not trivial. Direct costs of imprisonment in Canada approach $3.5 billion annually; in the US the cost is substantially higher, approaching $74 billion . [...]
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MDPI and ACS Style
Matheson, F.I. Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 97-99.
Matheson FI. Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(1):97-99.
Matheson, Flora I. 2012. "Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 1: 97-99.