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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(2), 528-539; doi:10.3390/ijerph8020528
Article

Smoking and Socio-Demographic Determinant of Cardiovascular Diseases among Males 45+ Years in Indonesia

1,* , 2
, 3
 and 4
Received: 15 January 2011; Accepted: 15 February 2011 / Published: 16 February 2011
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Abstract: The main objective of this study is to present the prevalence of Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs) defined as been diagnosed or having symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease, Arrhytmia, or Heart Failure. The main risk factor analyzed is smoking behavior. The data used for this study was from Basic Health Survey of 2007, a National baseline data collected every three years which consist of more than one million samples representing 33 provinces in Indonesia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, history of CVDs and smoking behavior were collected by highly-trained interviewers using a questionnaire which had been tested. A sub-sample of the survey consisting of 100,009 males aged 45 years and over was analyzed. Crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) were analyzed using logistic regressions to estimate the prevalence of CVDs by smoking behavior and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, 86.8% respondents reported that they had never been diagnosed as having CVDs or having any symptom of CVDs.; while 2.1% respondents reported that they had been diagnosed by a health professional (a doctor or a nurse) of having CVDs. The interviewers also identified three signs and symptoms of CVDs for all respondents if they reported of never been diagnosed CVDs. Among all respondents 2.3% had symptoms of coronary heart disease, 4.9% had symptoms of arrhytmia, and 3.9% had symptoms of heart failure. The prevalence of CVDs was significantly higher in former smokers (OR = 2.03), and duration of smoking for more than 20 years. The prevalence of CVDs was significantly higher among older groups. Old males who lived in Sulawesi island had higher probability of having CVDs (OR = 1.67). The lower prevalence of CVDs seemed to have associated with higher among Senior High School Graduate compared to those who Never Schooling (OR = 0.8). Since population of Indonesia is relatively young, the future of health care costs of Indonesia would be high due to high prevalence of smoking among males population. This finding suggests that Indonesia should ratify Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ans start impelementing measures to control tobacco uses in order to reduce public health and economic consequences of smoking in the future.
Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; smoking; Indonesia cardiovascular diseases; smoking; Indonesia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sumartono, W.; Sirait, A.M.; Holy, M.; Thabrany, H. Smoking and Socio-Demographic Determinant of Cardiovascular Diseases among Males 45+ Years in Indonesia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 528-539.

AMA Style

Sumartono W, Sirait AM, Holy M, Thabrany H. Smoking and Socio-Demographic Determinant of Cardiovascular Diseases among Males 45+ Years in Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(2):528-539.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sumartono, Wasis; Sirait, Anna M.; Holy, Maria; Thabrany, Hasbullah. 2011. "Smoking and Socio-Demographic Determinant of Cardiovascular Diseases among Males 45+ Years in Indonesia." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 2: 528-539.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert