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A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive
Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, VA, Italy
Environment Agency, Red Kite House, Howbery Park, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BD, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2010; in revised form: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 24 January 2011 / Published: 1 February 2011
Abstract: A model-based prioritisation exercise has been carried out for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. The approach considers two aspects: the hazard of a certain chemical and its exposure levels, and focuses on aquatic ecosystems, but also takes into account hazards due to secondary poisoning, bioaccumulation through the food chain and potential human health effects. A list provided by EU Member States, Stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organizations comprising 2,034 substances was evaluated according to hazard and exposure criteria. Then 78 substances classified as “of high concern” where analysed and ranked in terms of risk ratio (Predicted Environmental Concentration/Predicted No-Effect Concentration). This exercise has been complemented by a monitoring-based prioritization exercise using data provided by Member States. The proposed approach constitutes the first step in setting the basis for an open modular screening tool that could be used for the next prioritization exercises foreseen by the WFD.
Keywords: Water Framework Directive; priority substances; risk assessment
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Daginnus, K.; Gottardo, S.; Payá-Pérez, A.; Whitehouse, P.; Wilkinson, H.; Zaldívar, J.-M. A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 435-455.
Daginnus K, Gottardo S, Payá-Pérez A, Whitehouse P, Wilkinson H, Zaldívar J-M. A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(2):435-455.
Daginnus, Klaus; Gottardo, Stefania; Payá-Pérez, Ana; Whitehouse, Paul; Wilkinson, Helen; Zaldívar, José-Manuel. 2011. "A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 2: 435-455.