Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(11), 4353-4366; doi:10.3390/ijerph8114353
Review

Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition

1 Pediatric Intensive Care Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, No. 47 Doctor Castelo, Madrid 28009, Spain 2 Servicio de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, No. 47 Doctor Castelo, Madrid 28009, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2011; in revised form: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Public Health)
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Abstract: Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25–70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, and reduced nutrient delivery. The objective should be to administer individualized nutrition to the critically ill child and to be able to adjust the nutrition continuously according to the metabolic changes and evolving nutritional status. It would appear reasonable to start enteral nutrition within the first 24 to 48 hours after admission, when oral feeding is not possible. Parenteral nutrition should only be used when enteral nutrition is contraindicated or is not tolerated. Energy delivery must be individually adjusted to energy expenditure (40–65 kcal/100 calories metabolized/day) with a protein delivery of 2.5–3 g/kg/day. Frequent monitoring of nutritional and metabolic parameters should be performed.
Keywords: nutrition; malnutrition; enteral nutrition; parenteral nutrition; critically ill children

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MDPI and ACS Style

Prieto, M.B.; Cid, J.-H. Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 4353-4366.

AMA Style

Prieto MB, Cid J-H. Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(11):4353-4366.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prieto, Marta Botrán; Cid, Jesús López-Herce. 2011. "Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 11: 4353-4366.

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