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The Lag Structure and the General Effect of Ozone Exposure on Pediatric Respiratory Morbidity
Department of Pediatrics at Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Avenida da Noruega-Lordelo, Vila Real 5000-508, Portugal
University of Minho and NIMA, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2011; in revised form: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 18 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Abstract: Up to now no study has investigated the lag structure of children’s respiratory morbidity due to surface ozone. In the present study, we investigate the lag structure and the general effect of surface ozone exposure on children and adolescents’ respiratory morbidity using data from a particularly well suited area in southern Europe to assess the health effects of surface ozone. The effects of surface ozone are estimated using the recently developed distributed lag non-linear models, allowing for a relatively long timescale, while controlling for weather effects, a range of other air pollutants, and long and short term patterns. The public health significance of the estimated effects is higher than has been previously reported in the literature, providing evidence contrary to the conjecture that the surface ozone-morbidity association is mainly due to short-term harvesting. In fact, our data analysis reveals that the effects of surface ozone at medium and long timescales (harvesting-resistant) are substantially larger than the effects at shorter timescales (harvesting-prone), a finding that is consistent with all children and adolescents being affected by high surface ozone concentrations, and not just the very frail.
Keywords: public health; respiratory morbidity; children; surface ozone; distributed lag; non-linear models; delayed effects
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Fraga, J.; Botelho, A.; Sá, A.; Costa, M.; Quaresma, M. The Lag Structure and the General Effect of Ozone Exposure on Pediatric Respiratory Morbidity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 4013-4024.
Fraga J, Botelho A, Sá A, Costa M, Quaresma M. The Lag Structure and the General Effect of Ozone Exposure on Pediatric Respiratory Morbidity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(10):4013-4024.
Fraga, José; Botelho, Anabela; Sá, Aida; Costa, Margarida; Quaresma, Márcia. 2011. "The Lag Structure and the General Effect of Ozone Exposure on Pediatric Respiratory Morbidity." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 10: 4013-4024.