Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(10), 4013-4024; doi:10.3390/ijerph8104013
Article

The Lag Structure and the General Effect of Ozone Exposure on Pediatric Respiratory Morbidity

Received: 1 September 2011; in revised form: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 18 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Up to now no study has investigated the lag structure of children’s respiratory morbidity due to surface ozone. In the present study, we investigate the lag structure and the general effect of surface ozone exposure on children and adolescents’ respiratory morbidity using data from a particularly well suited area in southern Europe to assess the health effects of surface ozone. The effects of surface ozone are estimated using the recently developed distributed lag non-linear models, allowing for a relatively long timescale, while controlling for weather effects, a range of other air pollutants, and long and short term patterns. The public health significance of the estimated effects is higher than has been previously reported in the literature, providing evidence contrary to the conjecture that the surface ozone-morbidity association is mainly due to short-term harvesting. In fact, our data analysis reveals that the effects of surface ozone at medium and long timescales (harvesting-resistant) are substantially larger than the effects at shorter timescales (harvesting-prone), a finding that is consistent with all children and adolescents being affected by high surface ozone concentrations, and not just the very frail.
Keywords: public health; respiratory morbidity; children; surface ozone; distributed lag; non-linear models; delayed effects
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [350 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014 02:57 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Fraga, J.; Botelho, A.; Sá, A.; Costa, M.; Quaresma, M. The Lag Structure and the General Effect of Ozone Exposure on Pediatric Respiratory Morbidity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 4013-4024.

AMA Style

Fraga J, Botelho A, Sá A, Costa M, Quaresma M. The Lag Structure and the General Effect of Ozone Exposure on Pediatric Respiratory Morbidity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(10):4013-4024.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fraga, José; Botelho, Anabela; Sá, Aida; Costa, Margarida; Quaresma, Márcia. 2011. "The Lag Structure and the General Effect of Ozone Exposure on Pediatric Respiratory Morbidity." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 10: 4013-4024.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert