Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009†
Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Rd, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, UK
100 Tanfield Avenue, Neasden, London, NW2 7RT, UK
82 Goldsmith Road, London, N11 3JN, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2010; in revised form: 23 June 2010 / Accepted: 30 June 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
Abstract: There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt) for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996–2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001) including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0-14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001). Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0-34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001), all lymphoma 0–34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001), female breast cancer 0–44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001) and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004). Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006–2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0–1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001) 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0–4, 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 age cohorts in the Fallujah sample were 860, 1,182, 1,108 and 1,010 respectively suggesting genetic damage to the 0–4 group (p < 0.01). Whilst the results seem to qualitatively support the existence of serious mutation-related health effects in Fallujah, owing to the structural problems associated with surveys of this kind, care should be exercised in interpreting the findings quantitatively.
Keywords: Fallujah; Iraq; cancer; leukemia; depleted uranium; gulf war
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Busby, C.; Hamdan, M.; Ariabi, E. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 2828-2837.
Busby C, Hamdan M, Ariabi E. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(7):2828-2837.
Busby, Chris; Hamdan, Malak; Ariabi, Entesar. 2010. "Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 7: 2828-2837.