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Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria
Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State, Nigeria
Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2010; in revised form: 1 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 10 June 2010
Abstract: Lead (Pb) levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June), mid rain (July–August) and late rain seasons (September–October) for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 ± 0.00 and 80.36 ± 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 ± 0.01 and 4,238.29 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 ± 0.01 and 21.28 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13–0.49 mg/kg and 0.15–0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 ± 0.000 to 0.163 ± 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb.
Keywords: lead; roadside surface soil; rain water; dust particles; municipal cities; Nigeria
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Nduka, J.K.; Orisakwe, O.E. Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 2501-2513.
Nduka JK, Orisakwe OE. Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(6):2501-2513.
Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere. 2010. "Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 6: 2501-2513.