Next Article in Journal
Probabilistic Approaches to Better Quantifying the Results of Epidemiologic Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds
Previous Article in Journal
Sitting Time and Body Mass Index, in a Portuguese Sample of Men: Results from the Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study (APAHS)
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(4), 1508-1519; doi:10.3390/ijerph7041508

Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures

Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, 2608 Erwin Rd, Suite 200 Durham, NC 27705, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2010 / Revised: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 29 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [297 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  


Blood lead among pregnant women, even at modest levels, may impair offspring cognitive development. We examine whether blood lead levels (BLLs) result from current versus historic exposures, among a cohort of pregnant women. Cumulative logit models were used to characterize the relationship between maternal risk factors and higher BLLs. Maternal blood lead levels more likely result from lead remobilization from historic versus contemporaneous exposures. Even if all lead sources were abated immediately, women and their fetuses would experience lead exposure for decades. This work emphasizes the importance of addressing sources of environmental lead exposure in the United States and internationally. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood lead; pregnancy; birth outcomes; lead exposure blood lead; pregnancy; birth outcomes; lead exposure

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Miranda, M.L.; Edwards, S.E.; Swamy, G.K.; Paul, C.J.; Neelon, B. Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1508-1519.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top