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The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany
HealthBridge Vietnam, No. 15-16, 232 Lane, Ton Duc Thang Street, Dong Da District Hanoi, Vietnam
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1, Canada
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 55 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5T 3M7, Canada
Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, 246 Bloor Street W, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A1, Canada
Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, 01187 Dresden, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2009 / Accepted: 20 July 2009 / Published: 27 July 2009
Abstract: Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions) were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.
Keywords: alcoholic beverages; Vietnam; unrecorded alcohol; product quality; alcohol poisoning; traditional Chinese medicine
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Lachenmeier, D.W.; Anh, P.T.H.; Popova, S.; Rehm, J. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2090-2101.
Lachenmeier DW, Anh PTH, Popova S, Rehm J. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(8):2090-2101.
Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen. 2009. "The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 8: 2090-2101.