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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(8), 2090-2101; doi:10.3390/ijerph6082090
Article

The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health

1,* , 2
, 3,4,5
 and 3,4,6
Received: 17 June 2009; Accepted: 20 July 2009 / Published: 27 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
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Abstract: Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions) were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.
Keywords: alcoholic beverages; Vietnam; unrecorded alcohol; product quality; alcohol poisoning; traditional Chinese medicine alcoholic beverages; Vietnam; unrecorded alcohol; product quality; alcohol poisoning; traditional Chinese medicine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lachenmeier, D.W.; Anh, P.T.H.; Popova, S.; Rehm, J. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2090-2101.

AMA Style

Lachenmeier DW, Anh PTH, Popova S, Rehm J. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(8):2090-2101.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen. 2009. "The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 8: 2090-2101.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert