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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(7), 2055-2075; doi:10.3390/ijerph6072055
Article

The Liver-Brain Axis of Alcohol-Mediated Neurodegeneration: Role of Toxic Lipids

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Received: 24 June 2009; Accepted: 16 July 2009 / Published: 23 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
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Abstract: Alcohol abuse causes progressive toxicity and degeneration in liver and brain due to insulin resistance, which exacerbates oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation. Alcohol-induced steatohepatitis promotes synthesis and accumulation of ceramides and other toxic lipids that cause insulin resistance. Ceramides can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, and ceramide exposure causes neurodegeneration with insulin resistance and oxidative stress, similar to the effects of alcohol. Therefore, in addition to its direct neurotoxic effects, alcohol misuse establishes a liver-brain axis of neurodegeneration mediated by toxic lipid trafficking across the blood-brain barrier, leading to progressive white matter degeneration and cognitive impairment.
Keywords: ethanol; insulin resistance; ceramides; neurodegeneration; alcoholic liver disease; steatohepatitis ethanol; insulin resistance; ceramides; neurodegeneration; alcoholic liver disease; steatohepatitis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

De la Monte, S.M.; Longato, L.; Tong, M.; DeNucci, S.; Wands, J.R. The Liver-Brain Axis of Alcohol-Mediated Neurodegeneration: Role of Toxic Lipids. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2055-2075.

AMA Style

De la Monte SM, Longato L, Tong M, DeNucci S, Wands JR. The Liver-Brain Axis of Alcohol-Mediated Neurodegeneration: Role of Toxic Lipids. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(7):2055-2075.

Chicago/Turabian Style

De la Monte, Suzanne M.; Longato, Lisa; Tong, Ming; DeNucci, Sarah; Wands, Jack R. 2009. "The Liver-Brain Axis of Alcohol-Mediated Neurodegeneration: Role of Toxic Lipids." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 7: 2055-2075.



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