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Preventing Smoking in Young People: A Systematic Review of the Impact of Access Interventions
British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health; E311, 4500 Oak Street, Box 48, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education Counselling Psychology Doctoral Program, University of British Columbia, 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Department of Social and Policy Sciences and UK Centre for Tobacco Control Studies, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, U.K.
Cardiac Registry, Provincial Health Services Authority, 700-1380 Burrard St. Vancouver, BC, V6Z 2H3, Canada
Public Health Science Section, Division of Community Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, U.K.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2008; Accepted: 16 April 2009 / Published: 20 April 2009
Abstract: Aims: To examine existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that are designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to young people. The review considers specific sub-questions related to the factors that might influence effectiveness, any differential effects for different sub-populations of youth, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Methods: A review of studies on the impact of interventions on young people under the age of 18 was conducted. It included interventions that were designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to children and young people. The review was conducted in July 2007, and included 20 papers on access restriction studies. The quality of the papers was assessed and the relevant data was extracted. Results: The evidence obtained from the review indicates that access restriction interventions may produce significant reductions in the rate of illegal tobacco sales to youth. However, lack of enforcement and the ability of youth to acquire cigarettes from social sources may undermine the effectiveness of these interventions. Conclusions: When access interventions are applied in a comprehensive manner, they can affect young people’s access to tobacco. However, further research is required to examine the effects of access restriction interventions on young people’s smoking behaviour.
Keywords: Access restrictions; illegal sales; tobacco; youth; prevention
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Richardson, L.; Hemsing, N.; Greaves, L.; Assanand, S.; Allen, P.; McCullough, L.; Bauld, L.; Humphries, K.; Amos, A. Preventing Smoking in Young People: A Systematic Review of the Impact of Access Interventions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1485-1514.
Richardson L, Hemsing N, Greaves L, Assanand S, Allen P, McCullough L, Bauld L, Humphries K, Amos A. Preventing Smoking in Young People: A Systematic Review of the Impact of Access Interventions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(4):1485-1514.
Richardson, Lindsay; Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Assanand, Sunaina; Allen, Patrice; McCullough, Lucy; Bauld, Linda; Humphries, Karin; Amos, Amanda. 2009. "Preventing Smoking in Young People: A Systematic Review of the Impact of Access Interventions." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 4: 1485-1514.