Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1418-1442; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041418
Review

Perchlorate: Health Effects and Technologies for Its Removal from Water Resources

Received: 13 February 2009; Accepted: 3 April 2009 / Published: 14 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Perchlorate has been found in drinking water and surface waters in the United States and Canada. It is primarily associated with release from defense and military operations. Natural sources include certain fertilizers and potash ores. Although it is a strong oxidant, perchlorate is very persistent in the environment. At high concentrations perchlorate can affect the thyroid gland by inhibiting the uptake of iodine. A maximum contaminant level has not been set, while a guidance value of 6 ppb has been suggested by Health Canada. Perchlorate is measured in environmental samples primarily by ion chromatography. It can be removed from water by anion exchange or membrane filtration. Biological and chemical processes are also effective in removing this species from water.
Keywords: Perchlorate; Drinking Water; Toxicity; Health Effects; Treatment Technologies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Srinivasan, A.; Viraraghavan, T. Perchlorate: Health Effects and Technologies for Its Removal from Water Resources. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1418-1442.

AMA Style

Srinivasan A, Viraraghavan T. Perchlorate: Health Effects and Technologies for Its Removal from Water Resources. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(4):1418-1442.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Srinivasan, Asha; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. 2009. "Perchlorate: Health Effects and Technologies for Its Removal from Water Resources." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 4: 1418-1442.

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