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Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative
School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, (M431) Crawley WA 6009 Western Australia, Australia
Department of Health, Government of Western Australia, Grace Vaughan House 227 Stubbs Terrace, Shenton Park, WA 6008 Western Australia, Australia
Water Corporation, Western Australia, 629 Newcastle Street, Leederville, Perth WA 6007 Western Australia, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2008; in revised form: / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 17 March 2009
Abstract: The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.
Keywords: Chemicals of concern; health impacts; risk assessment; recycled water
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MDPI and ACS Style
Rodriguez, C.; Van Buynder, P.; Lugg, R.; Blair, P.; Devine, B.; Cook, A.; Weinstein, P. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1174-1203.
Rodriguez C, Van Buynder P, Lugg R, Blair P, Devine B, Cook A, Weinstein P. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(3):1174-1203.
Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip. 2009. "Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 3: 1174-1203.