Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(11), 2849-2864; doi:10.3390/ijerph6112849
Article

Variation of Natural Streamflow since 1470 in the Middle Yellow River, China

1,2email and 1,2,* email
Received: 24 September 2009; Accepted: 17 November 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Nowadays, as the available water resources throughout the World are becoming depleted, in order to manage and plan water resource better, more and more attention is being paid into the fluctuating characteristics of water discharges. However, the preexisting research was mainly focused on the last half century. In this paper, the natural streamflow observed since 1470 at the Sanmenxia station in the middle Yellow River basin was collected, and the methods of variation coefficient, moving average, Mann-Kendall test and wavelet transform were applied to analyze the dynamic characteristics of the streamflow. The results showed that, (1) between 1470 and 2007, the natural streamflow changed 200–919 ×108 m3, and water discharge varied moderately; (2) in the middle Yellow River basin, it appears that the most severe and most persistent droughts during circa 1868–1990, the periods of 1470s–1490s, 1920s–1930s and 1990s–2000s also presented the condition of sustained low flows; (3) the natural streamflow series shows increasing and decreasing trends during the periods of 1470–1880 and 1881–2007, respectively, but both trends are not significant at >95% confidence; in addition, it is still found the streamflow series shows abrupt changes circa 1845, 1935 and 1960, respectively; (4) within a 250-year scale, there are circa 11, 26, 67 and 120-year periods for natural streamflow at the Sanmenxia station, and the periodicity of the 120-year one is the strongest. The dynamic characteristics of natural streamflow is the comprehensive result by many influencing factors, such as precipitation, temperature, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, sunspots, human activity etc.
Keywords: natural streamflow; Yellow River; variation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miao, C.-Y.; Ni, J.-R. Variation of Natural Streamflow since 1470 in the Middle Yellow River, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2849-2864.

AMA Style

Miao C-Y, Ni J-R. Variation of Natural Streamflow since 1470 in the Middle Yellow River, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(11):2849-2864.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miao, Chi-Yuan; Ni, Jin-Ren. 2009. "Variation of Natural Streamflow since 1470 in the Middle Yellow River, China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 11: 2849-2864.

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