Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 51-68; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010051

A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs

1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., MS-K50, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA 2 Research Triangle International, Public Health Policy Research Program, Hobbs Building, Rm 139, 3040 Cornwallis Rd, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2008; Accepted: 23 December 2008 / Published: 28 December 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
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Abstract: Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually.In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.
Keywords: Economic evaluation; cost-effectiveness; smoking; tobacco use; smoking cessation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kahende, J.W.; Loomis, B.R.; Adhikari, B.; Marshall, L. A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 51-68.

AMA Style

Kahende JW, Loomis BR, Adhikari B, Marshall L. A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(1):51-68.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kahende, Jennifer W.; Loomis, Brett R.; Adhikari, Bishwa; Marshall, LaTisha. 2009. "A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 1: 51-68.

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