Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 310-320; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010310
Article

Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort

1 Universidad de Málaga (Spain), Dpt. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health / School of Medicine, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Málaga, Spain 2 Universidad de Navarra (Spain), Dpt. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health / School of Medicine, Irunlarrea 1, Edif. Investigación, 31080 Pamplona, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2008; Accepted: 15 January 2009 / Published: 19 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health.
Keywords: Health related quality of life; SF-36; Tobacco

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MDPI and ACS Style

Guitérrez-Bedmar, M.; Seguí-Gómez, M.; Gómez-Gracia, E.; Bes-Rastrollo, M.; Martínez-González, M.A. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 310-320.

AMA Style

Guitérrez-Bedmar M, Seguí-Gómez M, Gómez-Gracia E, Bes-Rastrollo M, Martínez-González MA. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(1):310-320.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guitérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Seguí-Gómez, María; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez-González, Miguel A. 2009. "Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 1: 310-320.

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