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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 310-320; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010310
Article

Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort

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Received: 29 October 2008; Accepted: 15 January 2009 / Published: 19 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health.
Keywords: Health related quality of life; SF-36; Tobacco Health related quality of life; SF-36; Tobacco
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Guitérrez-Bedmar, M.; Seguí-Gómez, M.; Gómez-Gracia, E.; Bes-Rastrollo, M.; Martínez-González, M.A. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 310-320.

AMA Style

Guitérrez-Bedmar M, Seguí-Gómez M, Gómez-Gracia E, Bes-Rastrollo M, Martínez-González MA. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(1):310-320.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guitérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Seguí-Gómez, María; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez-González, Miguel A. 2009. "Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 1: 310-320.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert