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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 10-24; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010010
Review

Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?

1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 22 November 2008; Accepted: 20 December 2008 / Published: 23 December 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [284 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking.
Keywords: Smokeless tobacco; harm reduction; smoking cessation; smoking initiation Smokeless tobacco; harm reduction; smoking cessation; smoking initiation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomar, S.L.; Fox, B.J.; Severson, H.H. Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 10-24.

AMA Style

Tomar SL, Fox BJ, Severson HH. Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(1):10-24.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H. 2009. "Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 1: 10-24.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert