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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 25-35; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010025

Symptoms of Diminished Autonomy over Cigarettes with Non-Daily Use

1 Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA 2 Biostatistics, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2008 / Accepted: 20 December 2008 / Published: 23 December 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Data from a nationally representative sample of smokers (ages 12-22 years, n=2,091) was examined to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes. Six symptoms were assessed: failed cessation, smoking despite a desire to quit, and a need or urge to smoke, irritability, restlessness, or disrupted concentration attributed to nicotine withdrawal. One or more of the six symptoms were present in 18.9% of subjects who smoked less often than once per week. Among subjects who had not smoked 20 cigarettes in their lifetime, 12.6% had symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and 25% had made an unsuccessful quit attempt.
Keywords: Smoking; adolescents; tobacco; dependence; addiction Smoking; adolescents; tobacco; dependence; addiction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Savageau, J.A.; Mowery, P.D.; DiFranza, J.R. Symptoms of Diminished Autonomy over Cigarettes with Non-Daily Use. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 25-35.

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