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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 25-35; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010025
Article

Symptoms of Diminished Autonomy over Cigarettes with Non-Daily Use

1
, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 3 November 2008; Accepted: 20 December 2008 / Published: 23 December 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: Data from a nationally representative sample of smokers (ages 12-22 years, n=2,091) was examined to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes. Six symptoms were assessed: failed cessation, smoking despite a desire to quit, and a need or urge to smoke, irritability, restlessness, or disrupted concentration attributed to nicotine withdrawal. One or more of the six symptoms were present in 18.9% of subjects who smoked less often than once per week. Among subjects who had not smoked 20 cigarettes in their lifetime, 12.6% had symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and 25% had made an unsuccessful quit attempt.
Keywords: Smoking; adolescents; tobacco; dependence; addiction Smoking; adolescents; tobacco; dependence; addiction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Savageau, J.A.; Mowery, P.D.; DiFranza, J.R. Symptoms of Diminished Autonomy over Cigarettes with Non-Daily Use. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 25-35.

AMA Style

Savageau JA, Mowery PD, DiFranza JR. Symptoms of Diminished Autonomy over Cigarettes with Non-Daily Use. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(1):25-35.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Savageau, Judith A.; Mowery, Paul D.; DiFranza, Joseph R. 2009. "Symptoms of Diminished Autonomy over Cigarettes with Non-Daily Use." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 1: 25-35.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert