Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(5), 342-348; doi:10.3390/ijerph5050342
Article

Vernonia amygdalina: Anticancer Activity, Authentication, and Adulteration Detection

1 The Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Phytoceuticals, and Cancer Prevention and Therapies; College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA 2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA 3 NIH RCMI Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2008; Accepted: 16 December 2008 / Published: 31 December 2008
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Abstract: Evidence suggests that most chemotherapeutic agents are less effective as treatment in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast carcinomas compared to those with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast carcinomas. Moreover, African American Women (AAW) is disproportionately diagnosed with ER- breast cancer compared to their white counterparts. Novel therapies effective against ER- breast carcinomas are urgently needed to ameliorate the health disparity. Previous reports show that low concentrations (microgram/ml) of water-soluble leaf extracts of a Nigerian edible plant, V. amygdalina (VA), potently retards the proliferative activities of ER+ human breast cancerous cells (MCF-7) in vitro in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, the anti-proliferative activities of VA in either ductal or ER- carcinoma cells have not been characterized. The exposure of BT-549 to increasing concentrations of VA (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) inhibited cell growth by approximately 14% (P<0.05), 22% (p<0.05), and 50% (p<0.005) respectively. The cell count studies were corroborated by DNA synthesis studies. Treatments of BT-549 with 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL VA inhibited DNA synthesis in a concentration dependent fashion by 22%, 76% (P<0.05), and 86% (p<0.01) respectively. BT-549 cells were insensitive to 10 and 100 nM paclitaxel (TAX) treatments. Isolation of DNA from dried VA leaves yielded approximately 12.2 and 1 kbp genomic DNA that were Eco RI-insensitive but Hind III and Bam HI-sensitive. These pieces of information may be used to enhance the safety of medicinal botanical VA through authentication, and adulteration detection.
Keywords: anti-cancer; vernonia amygdalina; activity prediction; standardization

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gresham, L.J.; Ross, J.; Izevbigie, E.B. Vernonia amygdalina: Anticancer Activity, Authentication, and Adulteration Detection. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5, 342-348.

AMA Style

Gresham LJ, Ross J, Izevbigie EB. Vernonia amygdalina: Anticancer Activity, Authentication, and Adulteration Detection. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2008; 5(5):342-348.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gresham, Lecia J.; Ross, Jetaime; Izevbigie, Ernest B. 2008. "Vernonia amygdalina: Anticancer Activity, Authentication, and Adulteration Detection." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 5, no. 5: 342-348.

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