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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2008), Pages 181-317

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Modeling Study for an Ozone Occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 181-203; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040181
Received: 10 October 2008 / Accepted: 25 November 2008 / Published: 26 November 2008
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions,
[...] Read more.
Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, and a mesoscale numerical meteorological model, WRF, has been applied to investigate an ozone event occurring during the period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Campaign. The results show that the modeling system exhibits the capability to simulate this high ozone occurrence by providing a comparable temporal variation of surface ozone concentration at one station and to capture the spatial evolution of the event. Several sensitivity tests were also conducted to identify the contributions to high surface ozone concentration from eight VOC subspecies, biogenic VOCs, anthropogenic VOCs and long-range transportation of ozone and its precursors. It is found that the reductions of ETH, ISOP, PAR, OLE and FORM help to mitigate the surface ozone concentration, and like anthropogenic VOCs, biogenic VOC plays a nonnegligible role in ozone formation. But for this case, long-range transport of ozone and its precursors appears to produce an insignificant contribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 204-212; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040204
Received: 25 September 2008 / Accepted: 25 November 2008 / Published: 28 November 2008
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to
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Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated With Childhood Diarrhea in Low-and-Middle Income Countries: Case Study of Yaoundé – Cameroon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 213-229; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040213
Received: 4 November 2008 / Accepted: 24 November 2008 / Published: 2 December 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Notwithstanding significant advancement in the understanding of pathogenesis and management, diarrheal illnesses remain one of the principal causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Infections account for most illnesses, with pathogens employing ingenious mechanisms to establish disease. In 2002, an interdisciplinary program “Populations
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Notwithstanding significant advancement in the understanding of pathogenesis and management, diarrheal illnesses remain one of the principal causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Infections account for most illnesses, with pathogens employing ingenious mechanisms to establish disease. In 2002, an interdisciplinary program “Populations et al. Espaces à Risques SANitaires” (PERSAN) was set up under the patronage of the Development Research Institute (IRD). Focused on health in Cameroon’s urban environment, the program mainly sought to identify diarrhea risk factors in Yaoundé. So for, a cross-sectional epidemiological study in children aged 6-59 months was carried out using a standardized protocol. The survey was initiated in 2002 and conducted during April to June in the year 2005. 3,034 stool samples were collected from children in twenty neighbourhoods in Yaoundé and examined at the Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory of the Cameroon Pasteur Institute. About 60% of the patients were aged less than two years and 52% were male. Among the 437 patients with the diarrheal disease, 260 were found to be of infectious etiology, i.e. micro organism was detected in 59.5 % of the cases. Out of which, 10 (03.8%), 96 (36.9%), and 154 (59.2%) were respectively caused by pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic parasites. Higher prevalence was found in overcrowded and under supply spontaneous settlement (78.4%) than in less crowded and formal residential settlement (21.5%). Etiologic data on diarrheal diseases and their spatial distribution are important tools for public health management and control strategic planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Gender Specific Differences in the Pros and Cons of Smoking among Current Smokers in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Future Smoking Cessation Interventions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 230-242; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040230
Received: 22 October 2008 / Accepted: 4 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated gender differences in the perceived “pros” and “cons” of smoking using the constructs of decisional balance (DB) and stage of change from the Transtheoretical Model. The population distribution for stage of change among a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 155 current
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This study investigated gender differences in the perceived “pros” and “cons” of smoking using the constructs of decisional balance (DB) and stage of change from the Transtheoretical Model. The population distribution for stage of change among a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 155 current smokers over 40 years was: precontemplation (22.6%), contemplation (41.9%), preparation (35.5%). Results of stepwise regression models indicated significant gender differences in DB were in the preparation stage of change; scores on the DB measure increased 3.94 points (95% CI: 1.94, 5.93) for male smokers. Interventions targeting the “pros” and “cons” of smoking may need to be gender specific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Food Intakes by Preschool Children in Flanders Compared with Dietary Guidelines
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 243-257; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040243
Received: 27 October 2008 / Accepted: 5 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.5-6.5 years) living in Flanders (Belgium) were assessed in
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The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.5-6.5 years) living in Flanders (Belgium) were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR) (n 696). Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk) were below the minimum recommendations. Only ‘grains and potatoes’ and ‘meat products’ were in line with the recommendations and ‘bread and cereals’ showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks), were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes). Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschooler’s current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in Northwest Ohio: Correlates of Prevalence and Age at Onset
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 278-289; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040278
Received: 11 November 2008 / Accepted: 12 December 2008 / Published: 15 December 2008
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of smoking initiation among adolescents. We have used data from adolescents (n=5,392) ages 10-18 who participated in the 2003 Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of adolescents in Northwest Ohio. A selfreport of cigarette smoking was obtained
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This study examined the prevalence and correlates of smoking initiation among adolescents. We have used data from adolescents (n=5,392) ages 10-18 who participated in the 2003 Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of adolescents in Northwest Ohio. A selfreport of cigarette smoking was obtained using a questionnaire administered in classrooms. Data were analyzed using weighted chi-square and multiple logistic regressions in SAS that accounted for the survey design. The prevalence rates for adolescents that ever tried smoking were 7.4% in elementary (grades 4-5); 17.7% in middle (grades 6-8), and 41.4% in high (grades 9-12) schools, respectively. The highest prevalence rate was among Hispanics. Having a close friend that smoked and a smoker at home correlated significantly with both initiation of smoking and smoking at an earlier age. Smoking was correlated with low academic achievement among adolescents in all grades. Students who reported smoking by parents or siblings were significantly more likely to start smoking at an earlier age, compared to other students living in a non-smoking home environment. Smoking prevention program should include components focused on adolescents’ home environment and should start as early as the 4th grade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Web 3D for Public, Environmental and Occupational Health: Early Examples from Second Life®
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 290-317; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040290
Received: 4 December 2008 / Accepted: 17 December 2008 / Published: 18 December 2008
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (2952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past three years (2006-2008), the medical/health and public health communities have shown a growing interest in using online 3D virtual worlds like Second Life® (http://secondlife.com/) for health education, community outreach, training and simulations purposes. 3D virtual worlds are seen as the
[...] Read more.
Over the past three years (2006-2008), the medical/health and public health communities have shown a growing interest in using online 3D virtual worlds like Second Life® (http://secondlife.com/) for health education, community outreach, training and simulations purposes. 3D virtual worlds are seen as the precursors of ‘Web 3D’, the next major iteration of the Internet that will follow in the coming years. This paper provides a tour of several flagship Web 3D experiences in Second Life®, including Play2Train Islands (emergency preparedness training), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—CDC Island (public health), Karuna Island (AIDS support and information), Tox Town at Virtual NLM Island (US National Library of Medicine - environmental health), and Jefferson’s Occupational Therapy Center. We also discuss the potential and future of Web 3D. These are still early days of 3D virtual worlds, and there are still many more untapped potentials and affordances of 3D virtual worlds that are yet to be explored, as the technology matures further and improves over the coming months and years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Towards Integration of Environmental and Health Impact Assessments for Wild Capture Fishing and Farmed Fish with Particular Reference to Public Health and Occupational Health Dimensions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 258-277; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040258
Received: 30 October 2008 / Accepted: 5 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper offers a review and commentary, with particular reference to the production of fish from wild capture fisheries and aquaculture, on neglected aspects of health impact assessments which are viewed by a range of international and national health bodies and development agencies
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The paper offers a review and commentary, with particular reference to the production of fish from wild capture fisheries and aquaculture, on neglected aspects of health impact assessments which are viewed by a range of international and national health bodies and development agencies as valuable and necessary project tools. Assessments sometimes include environmental health impact assessments but rarely include specific occupational health and safety impact assessments especially integrated into a wider public health assessment. This is in contrast to the extensive application of environmental impact assessments to fishing and the comparatively large body of research now generated on the public health effects of eating fish. The value of expanding and applying the broader assessments would be considerable because in 2004 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports there were 41,408,000 people in the total ‘fishing’ sector including 11,289,000 in aquaculture. The paper explores some of the complex interactions that occur with regard to fishing activities and proposes the wider adoption of health impact assessment tools in these neglected sectors through an integrated public health impact assessment tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)

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