Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(4), 343-347; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030044
Article

Synergistic Effects of Copper and Butylic Ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (Esternon Ultra) on Amphibian Embryos

1,2,3 and 1,2
Received: 21 December 2005; Accepted: 10 January 2006 / Published: 31 December 2006
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cu2+ and butylic ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as Esternon Ultra (2,4-D) toxicity on Bufo arenarum embryos were evaluated by means of a short-term chronic toxicity test (AMPHITOX). The NOEC values for Cu and 2,4-D were 0.02 mg/L and 2 mg/L respectively. The toxicity profile curves for Cu and 2,4-D were reported. The interactions of the metal and the herbicide were evaluated by combined treatments with different concentrations of Cu and 2,4-D. Although in all cases, a synergistic effect between these chemicals was observed, the combination of concentrations exerting low level effects in isolated treatments resulted in more adverse embryonic survival. Considering that both products are extensively used in agroecosystems, this fact could be of concern for non target species like amphibians.
Keywords: 2; 4-D; copper; amphibian embryos; synergistic effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J. Synergistic Effects of Copper and Butylic Ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (Esternon Ultra) on Amphibian Embryos. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3, 343-347.

AMA Style

Pérez-Coll CS, Herkovits J. Synergistic Effects of Copper and Butylic Ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (Esternon Ultra) on Amphibian Embryos. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2006; 3(4):343-347.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pérez-Coll, Cristina S.; Herkovits, Jorge. 2006. "Synergistic Effects of Copper and Butylic Ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (Esternon Ultra) on Amphibian Embryos." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 3, no. 4: 343-347.

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