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Toxic Elements in Soil and Groundwater: Short-Time Study on Electrokinetic Removal of Arsenic in the Presence of other Ions
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Florida State University,2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA
George & Hutcheson Engineering Inc., 1967 Commonwealth Lane, Suite-2000, Tallahassee, Florida 32303, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2006 / Accepted: 31 May 2006 / Published: 30 June 2006
Abstract: The electrokinetic technique is an emerging technology presently tested in situ to remove dissolved heavy metals from contaminated groundwater. There is a growing interest for using this system to cleanse clayey soil contaminated by toxic metallic ions. Currently, there are very few available non-destructive treatment methods that could be successfully applied in situ on low permeable type of soil matrix. The main objective of presented study was to validate and possibly enhance the overall efficiency of decontamination by the electrokinetic technique of the low permeable soil polluted by the arsenic in combination with chromium and copper ions. The chosen mixture of ions was imitating leak of pesticide well known as chromate copper arsenate (CCA). The chosen technique is showing a big promise to be used in the future as a portable, easy to install and run on sites with spills or leaks hard to reach otherwise; such as in the dense populated and urbanized areas. Laboratory electrokinetic experiments were designed to understand and possibly manipulate main mechanisms involved during forced migration of ions. All tests were conducted on artificially contaminated kaolinite (low permeable clay soil). Electrokinetic migration was inducted by the low voltage dc current applied through soil column. Series of experiments were designed to assess the efficiency of arsenic-chromium-copper remediation by applying (1) only dc current; and (2) by altering the soil environment. Obtained results showed that arsenic could be successfully removed from the soil in one day (25 hours) span. It was significant time reduction, very important during emergency response. Mass recovered at the end of each test depended on initial condition of soil and type of flushing solution. The best results were obtained, when soil was flushed with either NaOH or NaOCl (total removal efficiency 74.4% and 78.1%, respectively). Direct analysis of remained arsenic in soil after these tests confirmed substantial drop of the initial mass of arsenic in soil profile from 51.54 mg to 10.62 mg (NaOH) and 5.68 mg (NaOCl) after 25 hours of treatment.
Keywords: Toxic ions; electrokinetic technique; arsenic; CCA; remediation of low permeable soil
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Leszczynska, D.; Ahmad, H. Toxic Elements in Soil and Groundwater: Short-Time Study on Electrokinetic Removal of Arsenic in the Presence of other Ions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3, 196-201.
Leszczynska D, Ahmad H. Toxic Elements in Soil and Groundwater: Short-Time Study on Electrokinetic Removal of Arsenic in the Presence of other Ions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2006; 3(2):196-201.
Leszczynska, Danuta; Ahmad, Hafiz. 2006. "Toxic Elements in Soil and Groundwater: Short-Time Study on Electrokinetic Removal of Arsenic in the Presence of other Ions." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 3, no. 2: 196-201.