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Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Waterways Experiment Station, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2005; Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Abstract: Explosive compounds have been released into the environment during manufacturing, handling, and usage procedures. These compounds have been found to persist in the environment and potentially promote detrimental biological effects. The lack of research on bioaccumulation and bioconcentration and especially dietary transfer on aquatic life has resulted in challenges in assessing ecological risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential trophic transfer of the explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) using a realistic freshwater prey/predator model and using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a highly bioaccumulative compound, to establish relative dietary uptake potential. The oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to 14C-labeled TNT, RDX or DDT for 5 hours in water, frozen in meal-size packages and subsequently fed to individual juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Fish were sampled for body residue determination on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 following an 8-hour gut purging period. Extensive metabolism of the parent compound in worms occurred for TNT but not for RDX and DDT. Fish body residue remained relatively unchanged over time for TNT and RDX, but did not approach steady-state concentration for DDT during the exposure period. The bioaccumulation factor (concentration in fish relative to concentration in worms) was 0.018, 0.010, and 0.422 g/g for TNT, RDX and DDT, respectively, confirming the expected relatively low bioaccumulative potential for TNT and RDX through the dietary route. The experimental design was deemed successful in determining the potential for trophic transfer of organic contaminants via a realistic predator/prey exposure scenario.
Keywords: TNT; RDX; DDT; trophic transfer; bioaccumulation
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Houston, J.G.; Lotufo, G.R. Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 286-292.
Houston JG, Lotufo GR. Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(2):286-292.
Houston, Jerre G.; Lotufo, Guilherme R. 2005. "Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 2: 286-292.