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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(2), 272-285; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005020011
Article

Degradation of Metalaxyl and Mefenoxam and Effects on the Microbiological Properties of Tropical and Temperate Soils

1,*  and 2
Received: 10 January 2005; Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
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Abstract: The degradation of various formulations of the racemic mixture and the enantiomers (including mefenoxam) of metalaxyl in typical soils from Germany and Cameroon in controlled incubation experiments was studied. The kinetics of the degradation or transformation was determined by means of reversed phase HPLC, while the enantiomeric ratios were measured by HPLC with a chiral Whelk O1 column. The dynamics of the quantitative changes in microbiological properties induced by the addition of these fungicides at their recommended field rates were determined in the soils during a 120-day incubation experiment. The degradation followed first-order kinetics (R²≥0.96). Higher metalaxyl acid metabolite concentrations were found in German than in Cameroonian soils. The enantiomers of the fungicide had different degradation rates in both soils, with half-lives ranging from 17 to 38 days. All forms of metalaxyl had lower degradation rates in the Cameroonian soil than in the German soil. The degradation of the R-enantiomer was much faster than the S-enantiomer in the German soil and slower than the S-enantiomer in the Cameroonian soil, suggesting that different microbial populations, which may be using different enzymes, have different degradation preferences. The type of soil significantly influenced the effect of these fungicides on the soil parameters studied. Incorporation of these fungicides resulted in a change in the ecophysiological status of the soil microbial community as expressed by microbial activities. The activity of phosphatases and ß-glucosidase, the mineralization and availability of N and most plant nutrients in soils were stimulated, whereas the activity of dehydrogenase and the availability of NO3-, were generally adversely affected. The soil NH4+, NO3-, and enzymes activities values in general did not correlate with the degradation of metalaxyl in both soils. However, the degradation of formulated and unformulated metalaxyl was positively correlated to the activity of acid phosphatase in the German soil (R², 0.84 and 0.94 respectively) and in the Cameroonian soil (R², 0.97 and 0.96 respectively).
Keywords: Mefenoxam; Metalaxyl; Soil enzymes; Soil biochemical parameters; Plant nutrients; Degradation kinetics; Soils Mefenoxam; Metalaxyl; Soil enzymes; Soil biochemical parameters; Plant nutrients; Degradation kinetics; Soils
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Monkiedje, A.; Spiteller, M. Degradation of Metalaxyl and Mefenoxam and Effects on the Microbiological Properties of Tropical and Temperate Soils. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 272-285.

AMA Style

Monkiedje A, Spiteller M. Degradation of Metalaxyl and Mefenoxam and Effects on the Microbiological Properties of Tropical and Temperate Soils. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(2):272-285.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Monkiedje, Adolphe; Spiteller, Michael. 2005. "Degradation of Metalaxyl and Mefenoxam and Effects on the Microbiological Properties of Tropical and Temperate Soils." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 2: 272-285.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert