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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2(1), 123-131; doi:10.3390/ijerph2005010123
Article

Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules Expression in the Brain in Human Cerebral Malaria

1, 1,2,* , 3, 1,2, 1 and 1
Received: 15 November 2004 / Accepted: 6 February 2005 / Published: 30 April 2005
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Abstract

Although the role of systemic proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and their up-regulation of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin, in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) is well established, the role of local cytokine release remain unclear. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to compare the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF- β at light microscopic level in cerebral, cerebellar and brainstem postmortem cryostat sections from 10 CM, 5 severe malarial anemia (SMA), 1 purulent bacterial meningitis (PBM), 2 non-central nervous system infections (NCNSI) and 3 non-infections (NI) deaths in Ghanaian children. Fatal malaria and Salmonella sepsis showed significantly higher vascular expression of all 3 adhesion molecules, with highly significant co-localization with sequestration in the malaria cases. However, there was negligible difference between CM and SMA. TGF-β showed intravascular and perivascular distribution in all cases, but expression was most intense in the PBM case and CM group. TNF-α and IL-1β showed prominent brain parenchymal staining, in addition to intravascular and perivascular staining, in only the PBM case and CM group. The maximal expression of all 6 antigens studied was in the cerebellar sections of the malaria cases. Endothelial activation is a feature of fatal malaria and Salmonella sepsis, with adhesion molecule expression being highly correlated with sequestration. IL-1β and TNF-α are upregulated in only cases with neurodegenerative lesions, whilst TGF-β is present in all cases. Both cytokines and adhesion molecules were maximally upregulated in the cerebellar sections of the malaria cases.
Keywords: Cytokines; Adhesion Molecules; Human Brain; Postmortem; Cerebral Malaria Cytokines; Adhesion Molecules; Human Brain; Postmortem; Cerebral Malaria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Armah, H.; Wiredu, E.K.; Dodoo, A.K.; Adjei, A.A.; Tettey, Y.; Gyasi, R. Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules Expression in the Brain in Human Cerebral Malaria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 123-131.

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