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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081778

Lead, Cadmium, and Arsenic Bioaccessibility of 24 h Duplicate Diet Ingested by Preschool Children Attending Day Care Centers in Brazil

1
Departamento de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, São Paulo 1246-904, Brazil
2
Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Avenida dos Estados, 5001, Bairro Santa Terezinha, Santo André—SP—Brasil, Santo André 09210-580, Brazil
3
Agilent Technologies, Alameda Araguaia, 1142 Alphaville Industrial, Barueri 6455000, Brazil
The two first authors deserve the same merit because they had the same level of participation in the data collection and manuscript writing.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [357 KB, uploaded 18 August 2018]

Abstract

Lead, known as a metal with high neurotoxicity to children, cadmium, which is a carcinogenic and bioaccumulative contaminant, and arsenic, a class 1 carcinogenic according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are toxic elements (TEs) whose relevant route of exposure may be diet. We determined the bio-accessible fraction of lead, cadmium, and arsenic from the diet of preschool children from two day care centers (DCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 64 one–four-year-old children from two DCCs where the 24-h duplicate diet samples were collected. The diet samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for lead, cadmium, and arsenic total concentrations (n = 64) and their bio-accessibility were analyzed for a subsample (n = 10). The dietary intake (DI) mean for lead, cadmium, and arsenic were 0.18 ± 0.11 µg kg−1 bw, 0.08 ± 0.04 µg kg−1 bw, and 0.61 ± 0.41 µg kg−1 bw, respectively. All DI calculated for TEs, considering total intake, were found lower than the tolerable limits (TL) (European Union, or World Health Organization, WHO, when applicable) except for one child’s Pb intake. Bio-accessibilities ranged between 0% to 93%, 0% to 103%, and 0% to 69%, for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Although DI for TEs has been found lower than TL, these reference values have been recently decreased or withdrawn since it was for lead and arsenic whose TL were withdrawn by WHO. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-accessibility; 24-h diet; preschool children; arsenic intake; cadmium intake; lead intake bio-accessibility; 24-h diet; preschool children; arsenic intake; cadmium intake; lead intake
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Leroux, I.N.; Ferreira, A.P.S.S.; Paniz, F.P.; Pedron, T.; Salles, F.J.; da Silva, F.F.; Maltez, H.F.; Batista, B.L.; Olympio, K.P.K. Lead, Cadmium, and Arsenic Bioaccessibility of 24 h Duplicate Diet Ingested by Preschool Children Attending Day Care Centers in Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1778.

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