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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071530

A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study on Prenatal Levels of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet: Maternal Profile and Effects on the Newborn

1
Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Avinguda Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
2
CIBER in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3–5, Pabellón 11, Planta 0, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Obstetrics, La Fe University Hospital, Avinguda de Fernando Abril Martorell, 106, 46026 València, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract

The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern with important benefits. The objectives of this study were to assess the adherence to the MD among pregnant women in Valencia (Spain) and characterize the pregnant women according to their level of adherence. Finally, we aimed to examine the role of MD adherence during pregnancy in the anthropometric development of the newborn. The study included 492 pregnant women who were followed at La Fe Hospital in 2017. The self-administered “Kidmed” questionnaire for data collection on dietary information evaluation was used and a clinical history review of mothers and newborns was performed. Two groups of mothers were identified: those with low adherence (LA) and optimal adherence (OA). The study revealed that 40.2% of the women showed LA to the MD. The newborns born to these women presented a higher risk of being small for gestational age (SGA) {adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–5.46} when adjusting for parental body mass index (BMI) and multiple gestation, but not when adjusting for all significant possible confounders (aOR = 2.32; 95% CI 0.69–7.78). The association between MD and SGA was not significantly affected by the use of iron and folic acid supplements (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI 0.66–10.65). The profile of the pregnant woman with LA is that of a young smoker, with a low level of education and a low daily intake of dairy products. These results suggest that LA to the MD is not associated with a higher risk of giving birth to a SGA newborn. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; small for gestational age; pregnancy; primary prevention Mediterranean diet; small for gestational age; pregnancy; primary prevention
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Peraita-Costa, I.; Llopis-González, A.; Perales-Marín, A.; Sanz, F.; Llopis-Morales, A.; Morales-Suárez-Varela, M. A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study on Prenatal Levels of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet: Maternal Profile and Effects on the Newborn. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1530.

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